To take the train with a solar bike !

The after Sun Trip Tour: from Valence to Dijon via Châlon-sur-Saône

On July 20th, I leave Valence in TER to join Châlon-sur-Saône. I use the idea that guided the design of my solar vehicle: to take the train. Principles: – a standard bike is always accepted in the TER and in some TGV, – the trailer is acceptable with the panel vertically, it does not take more space than a bike. For the moment, I have taken the train a dozen times in France and Switzerland, I have never been opposed to refusal.

If necessary, we can reduce the length by sliding the 3rd panel on the 2nd, in less than 10 minutes.

In some trains (TGV and Lyria), we can create the equivalent of a cover with trash bags and big scotch (and for the bike, disassembly of the wheels, and when I have the time, pedals and handlebars before putting it in a bag).

July 21, I finish cycling back to Dijon, at 34 km/h average speed.

Training for the 2019 Sun Trip Tour

In May: first technical test outlets to bring out any weaknesses of design, make improvements that will then be tested in turn (~ 1000 km approximately).
In June: outings to train the cyclist and test the machine on long journeys(~ 2600 km approximately).

Ver en pantalla completa

DateGPSDist.
km
Déniv+
m
Durée
H : mn
Vitesse
km/h
Conso
Wh/km
Prod
Wh
20-0617 !!!320:3925,84,4
24
19-0619720807:1127,44,51082
18-0612213554:1029,35,51123
17-0616127136:2625,05,11108
16-061543665:0130,63,6976
15-0615012005:5025,74,51067
14-0614215274:5828,55,41174
13-061453455:2127,13,6663
12-061729326:3526,32,6538
11-061387955:4424,02,6874
10-0610411854:5021,54,2718
09-0617216327:3322,82,7498
08-0613015424:3228,75,81003
07-061309075:1125,03,8311
06-061239854:3726,64,4926
05-0612612455:1823,84,2630
04-0617213204:5534,94,41147
03-061477534:5729,73,9747
02-0611011503:3231,05,3
23-05273700:5728,05,5-
18-051146333:5431,03,2-
15-05784952:0636,94,9-
13-0520320606:3431,04,2-
02-0611011503:3231,05,3
23-05273700:5728,05,5-
18-051146333:5431,03,2-
15-05

784952:0636,94,9-
13-0520320606:3431,04,2-

 The battery of my solar bike connected in bluetooth!

It was at the Sun Trip 2019 and 2020 preparation weekend that I discovered this innovation. Thanks to Ralf!
So I decided to replace the BMS of my battery (battery management system) by a model with a bluetooth communication device. It cost me about thirty euros and a little more time than I imagined for the installation. Indeed, the connection pads of the BMS were different and I had to use the soldering iron.

No matter, I am satisfied with the result: now, I can know everything about the status of my battery, in real time, on the dedicated smartphone application. I still added a switch: it allows me to turn off the bluetooth module to avoid unnecessary discharge of the battery, for example during winter storage.

New on the Solarduino Bike: version 3.1 in test!

March 2019 version
Solarduino Bike v3.1
April 2019 version

Apparently nothing has changed between the March version and the April version 3.1. I simply changed the 3 solar panels! I replaced the old economics panels with high quality panels, made of the latest Sunpower ™ Maxeon photovoltaic cells, in the highest “class” or “grade”. Indeed, after manufacture, the cells are sorted into different classes according to their performance (Sunpower ™ uses a particular classification with well over 4 classes).

Result: 86% more solar energy for the same surface! What a difference !

I realize that in 2018 I thought to ride with 200Wc but in fact I had only 107Wc real. To have the same power, only 1 of the new panels would have been necessary, my trailer would have been 2 times shorter, lighter, hyper-manageable. In 2019, I chose to increase the panel area for more power. I wish: – to have more autonomy in case of cloudy weather with clearings, not to be worried about finishing a day “on the pedal”, – to ride faster if necessary, – to ride longer to travel greater distances.

A new type of solar bike on the Sun trip tour 2019!

Previous editions of the Sun trip have seen a wide variety of bikes: Classic straight bikes, tandems, but also recumbent bikes, recumbent tricycles, tandem-lying tricycles, cargo bikes, a seated/reclining tandem and, for a short appearance, a family bike with 4 wheels…
But no mobile bikes had yet participated. This will be the case this year with Bertrand Touzet: on July 6, he will start the Sun trip tour 2019 with his mobile bike whose fairing improves aerodynamics.
Bertrand makes us discover his vehicle in this short video:

The operation of a solar panel, by Christophe Dugué

It was during the course of preparation for Sun trip 2019 and 2020, in Lans-en-Vercors, that Christophe Dugué gave us important information about solar panels. In a very clear presentation, he explained to us the design and operation of a solar panel, the definition of its technical characteristics (maximum power) etc…
Christophe also informed us about practical aspects important for solar cyclists: the influence of temperature on performance, the impact of shading, the consequences of micro-cracks in photovoltaic cells…

The solar panels are its domain: Christophe works at Photowatt, a french manufacturer of solar panels for houses and buildings.
And most importantly, Christophe designed and manufactured prototype solar bike panels. These panels are both light and rigid, therefore resistant to the hazards of a solar bike trip. Christophe tested his first prototype during the Sun trip Tour 2017. Then Stéphane Bertrand was equipped for the Sun trip 2018, Lyon-Canton. For the Sun trip Tour 2019, Christophe will also equip his wife who will participate with him.

Preparation for Sun Trip 2019 and 2020

In mid April, the Sun trip team organized a weekend of preparation for the Sun trip. The aim of this internship was to help the participants better prepare themselves from a technical point of view:

  • understand the operation of solar panels,
  • know the different components of a bike with electric assistance (motor, controller, battery…),
  • share experiences from previous Sun trips,
  • prepare itineraries…

This weekend was intense and very rich, as well by the contributions of the speakers: Florian Bailly (creator of the Sun trip), Christophe Bayard (Association Vécolo), Christophe Dugué (Photowatt), Bernard Cauquil (Professor industrial technical and suntriper 2015 and 2020) and by exchanges between participants.
Thank you all!

Here is a video that translates the atmosphere of these encounters:

Comparative energy efficiency test of 3 flexible solar panels

After several days of rain, the Sun came back! It is slightly veed but no matter: I was too eager to test the solar panels received three days earlier! I compared them to the panels bought in 2017 and 2018. Although this test has no scientific value, the observations have seemed interesting enough to be published.

Test panels

Solar Panel 50W


Solar Panel 50W

Panel A
specified power: 50Wc nominal
number of cells: 4 x 4 = 16
cell manufacturer: unspecified
cell class: not specified
provenance: purchase from a reputable reseller on internet
price: 2 x €142 = €284 for 100Wc in 2017
Panel B
specified power: 100Wc nominal
number of cells: 5 x 6 = 30
cell manufacturer: unspecified
cell class: class C (visible defects)
provenance: purchase on a famous auction website
price: €135 in 2018
Panel C
specified power: 110Wc nominal
number of cells: 5 x 6 = 30
cells: SunPower™ Maxeon
cell class: class A
provenance: purchase from a manufacturer
price: €350 (~ 395 USD) in 2019

Measuring the instantaneous power of the panels

Not having a solar energy measuring device, it was not possible for me to measure the actual performance of each Panel. So I chose to measure the instantaneous power of the panels with wattmeters, in the sunshine conditions of the moment. And I compared 2 to 2 the panels connected each to an identical charge regulator charging the same battery.

Measured power with panels B and C

Measured power with panels A and C

Reservations about the test protocol

Various elements could impact the outcome of the measures and their analysis:

    • difference in the years of panel manufacturing, in a context of steady progression of cell performance;
    • difference in State of obsolescence and use of panels: Panel C totally new, Panel B having travelled several thousand km (vibrations + shocks), Panel A of 2017 never used and stored;
    • calibration difference of non-certified wattmeters;
    •  measurements made by veted Sun (repeat the test in other conditions of sunshine).

However, these elements can not fundamentally call into question the results obtained.

Calculations and results

The C Panel being the most powerful, I took it as a reference.  I calculated the ratio of the power produced by Panel A or B to the power produced by Panel C. The table above shows the relative efficiency of panels A and B in reference to Panel C, which therefore has an efficiency of 100%. Pushing the reflection further, I imagined an increase in the surface of panels A or B to get the same power as the C Panel. I then calculated the cost in corresponding A or B panels, and the corresponding panel surface.

Comparative table of the yield of 3 solar panels
NB: I took into account the difference in the number of cells (Panel A: 16 cells, panels B and C: 30 cells).
When observing this table, the following remarks can be issued:
Real power
:

  • panels A and B have almost identical power while panel A is 2 times more expensive than panel B;
  • the power of panel C is almost double that of panels A and B.

Price to get the same real power:

  • at equal power, panel A is 71% more expensive than panel C;
  • at equal power, panel B is 21% cheaper than panel C.

Surface to achieve the same real power:

  • at equal power, panels A and B occupy 90% more surface area than panel C.

Personal notes

Objective and subjective criteria had guided my purchases:

  • in 2017, I totally discovered the universe of the solar panel, it had reassured me to buy at a large recognized website, the many exchanges by phone and email had given me confidence.
  • in 2018, I wanted to experiment with a low-spread panel format (6×5 = 30 cells) and I had found on the market only these panels at low prices.
  • in 2019, I had the urge and the opportunity to invest in quality equipment, to increase the performance of my bike.

Conclusions

  • A high price is not always a guarantee of the performance of the equipment.
  • Lower yield panels (50%) have a strong impact on the solar bike: less autonomy or increased dimensions. In both cases, this will degrade the rider’s comfort and safety.
  • A higher expense for quality equipment ultimately represents an economy: the value for money is much better.
    Not to mention the other benefits: autonomy, maneuverability, performance…

All about electric bike, by Justin Lemire-Elmore

Justin works in an innovative Canadian company specializing in electric bikes. It creates equipments: batteries, motors, controllers, control consoles etc… Many SunTripers are equipped!
He participated in the Sun trip 2018, with his wife Anne-Sophie, on a solar tandem that he fully invented, where one pedal while the other oar!
Here they are at the Bourget-du-Lac campsite in June 2018:

Justin Lemire-Elmore and Anne-Sophie Rodet

Justin participated in the BC bike show 2019, the largest bike show in Western Canada. In this video, it provides a complete panorama of the various technologies available on the market, their pros and cons… See it, it’s very informative…

Solar panels: the efficiency of photovoltaic cells

This article tries to shed some light on the reader on an important element for the choice of its solar panels: their performance.
For any proposal for enrichment or correction, write to

What is the efficiency of a photovoltaic cell?

This is the ratio between the amount of electrical energy obtained by converting the light energy and the amount of solar energy received by a cell.

Definition of the efficiency of a photovoltaic cell

What is the yield of the cells available on the market?

When I first searched for panels, I read that the yield of this monocrystalline silicon cell was 15%, another 20% and some 22% (in 2017). Today in 2019, the best reaches 25%. Unfortunately, this feature is often absent from the panel specifications.
Questioned by phone, a manufacturer had replied to me: “my company, like many others, is sourcing from a fluctuating international market, we buy lots of good quality but without performance specification. By the way, every delivery, the country of manufacture is different! In this context, how to indicate a reliable data? ”

What’s the difference for the solar cyclist?

With an equal Panel surface, a solar cyclist with high-efficiency cells (25%) will have 66% more energy than a cyclist with low-yielding cells (15%). The first one will be able to drive faster or longer, farther… or make less effort, according to his choice!

yield comparison of different voltaic cells This animation illustrates the impact for the solar cyclist of these differences in performance, it does not have the ambition to have a scientific rigor…
Of course, the solar cyclist can compensate for low performance by increasing the surface of panels. But he knows that this will increase the dimensions of his vehicle, make it heavier, less easy to maneuver…

Yields according to different technologies

With monocrystalline silicon cells, in 2019, the yield reached 25% with the “back contact” technology, in the best panels. With polycrystalline silicon, researchers have succeeded in aachieving a record yield of 22,3%, but this technology is not marketed today (learn more…).

Performance above 30%?
In 2016, German researchers achieved a record performance of 33.3% with a cell called “multi-junction” (learn more…). But beware, you will not find it on the Internet, this technology is dedicated to space applications!
And in the United States, in Colorado, yields of 40.8% are displayed! It makes you dream…. but when will these technologies be available to the general public?

How to choose?

The solar cyclist is therefore tempted to acquire the cells with “high efficiency”. And why not the best of the moment?
Then the question of the budget arises! As you will have guessed, the higher the performance, the higher the cost. Unless you have a very generous budget or partners, the solar bike Designer will have to make choices, and most often, compromises!

Each one must first identify its needs, define its priorities in order to determine the optimal solution for its project. He will be able to equip himself with full knowledge of the cause.

How to choose your solar panels?

flexible solar panelPhotovoltaic panels are the key element of the solar bike: they convert the energy of the sun into electric energy that can be used directly by the engine and/or for charging the battery. When we start the adventure of building his solar bike, we are a little lost in front of the diversity of offers.

I will therefore share here several elements that can guide you and allow you to make a choice with full knowledge of the cause.

Flexible panels or rigid panels?

flexible solar panelFlexible panels: this is the type of panel most frequently used for solar bikes. The reasons are their lightness (from 3 to 5 kg for 200W) and the good energy efficiency of the monocrystalline silicon cells that compose them (ratio between recovered electrical energy/solar energy received). More often than not, a supporting structure of the panels is added that rigidifies and protects them. In fact, every shock on a cell decreases its performance locally. With multiplied shocks, the total power of the panel decreases significantly and permanently. That is the weak point of flexibility.

rigid solar panelRigid panels: they are sturdy, weatherproof like hail; they are planned a priori for a building installation. They are very heavy (15 to 18 kg for 200Wc). Their photovoltaic cells are often made of polycrystalline silicon with less energy efficiency than monocrystalline silicon. For these reasons, they are rarely used on solar bikes.

One exception, however: Christophe Dugué, who works at a French manufacturer, has built himself a rigid panel and light, monocrystalline. He experimented with it during the 2017 Sun Trip Tour. Stéphane Bertrand was also able to benefit this prototype during the 12,000 km of Sun Trip 2018. This summer, no doubt we will see these extraordinary panels again since Christophe Dugué and his wife participate in the Sun Trip Tour 2019. Unfortunately, these panels are not yet marketed.

The electrical characteristics of the panels

The power of a panel is proportional to the number of photovoltaic cells that compose it. The photovoltaic cell is the basic unit of a panel, it produces an electrical power of the order of 3 Watts under a voltage of less than 1 volt.
The electrical characteristics are mentioned by the manufacturers. The main features are the operating voltage (VMP in volts) and the maximum current in the event of maximum sunlight (IMP in AMPS). Depending on the Assembly of the cells, in series and/or parallel, panels of the same power may have different operating voltages and maximum currents.

Daniele Gonano salon auto Paris 2018The designer of a solar bike is therefore faced with an equation with many parameters influencing each other:

  • selection of the panel surface for the desired total power,
  • choice of dimensions and where to install them according to the type of bike,
  • serial or parallel installation depending on the solar controller (voltage and current),
  • choice of type and number of regulators (MPPT boost or not).

Solar panel photovoltaic cells

Two main types of cells can compose the panels. For a solar bike, because of the higher efficiency, it is the monocrystalline silicon that is most appropriate.

monocrystalline silicon cell Monocrystalline silicon cells
-very good yield, about 200Wc/m²
-lifespan of ~ 30 years,
-higher cost than polycrystalline silicon.
polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic cellPolycrystalline silicon cells
– yield of about 150Wc/m², thus less than monocrystalline,
-lifespan of ~ 30 years.
-cost more economical than monocrystalline silicon.

But it all depends on the user’s needs: Barnabas Chaillot, met during the prologue of Sun trip 2018, made the most economical choice [read more…].

The quality of photovoltaic cells

The performance of a panel depends on the quality of the photovoltaic cells that compose it but few panel manufacturers mention the “class” of the cells used. It strongly impacts the cost of construction of the panel, and therefore its selling price. For our use, three levels of cell quality are available:

class A photovoltaic cell“class A” cells: they are of very good quality, without visible defect and their electrical characteristics correspond exactly to the specifications defined by the manufacturer. The solar panels built with this cell class are therefore the most expensive.
“class B” cells: they are of good quality and have little visible defects. Their yield is close to or slightly lower than the “class A” cells.
class C photovoltaic cell“class C” cells: they show visible defects that affect their performance (e.g. chipped, cracked cells…). Their performance is obviously less good, these cells are used to realize the economic signs.
“class D” cells: they present breaks or are incomplete. They can be resized to produce in smaller sizes, but most often their material is recycled to make new ones.

More… All about the performance of photovoltaic cells!

Second test of my new solar bike

Today, the wind conditions were more favourable than last Tuesday, however the Vered Sun of the early afternoon provided less energy. By adjusting the engine power to 100W, I drove at an average speed of 31.5 km/h on a 90 km course with 650 m of positive elevation.

Wind

First test of Solarduino Bike 3rd version

Yesterday I experimented with my new solar bike! It is made up of a classic bike and a motorised trailer. I built this new trailer in order to support 3 solar panels of 100Wc (I only had 2 last year).
My intention is to increase the length of my courses. With 2 panels last year, I had completed courses of a little more than 200 km. With 3 panels, I now hope to exceed 250km per day.

For this first 2-step test, I travelled a total of 129 km with 1080 m of elevation gain in 4h25. My average speed was close to 30 km/h.

Due to the sunshine conditions, I set the electrical assistance between 90W and 115W with short moments at 225W.
In quite unfavourable wind conditions (wind of 20/25 km/h with brutal gusts at 50 km/h), I was able to appreciate the good behaviour of the trailer, very stable in turns of the road.

Barnabé Chaillot’s low cost solar bike !

During the prologue of the Sun Trip 2018, I met Barnabé Chaillot at Le Bourget-du-Lac Campground: He also accompanied the solar bike caravan to Chambéry. His solar bike was very unusual but I did not know his approach at that time, I discovered it according to my surf on Internet.

Barnabé wants to share his ecological ideas to protect our planet, ideas that he has put into practice for years. He chose to propagate them on the internet, among other things in the form of a YouTube channel. This video shows, step by step, how to build a very cheap solar bike, or rather a solar trailer to associate with a bike.
Whether you are planning or not building your solar bike, I invite you to look at Barnabé, to admire his ingenuity and his pedagogy, to delight you with this smile that never leaves him.

The number of subscribers in his YouTube channel attests to the interest of Internet users in his alternative practices.

Solar panels on a bike! How?

Installing a solar panel on a bike may sound simple at first. But if we want to do long distances, we are tempted to embark a large area of solar panels and the installation becomes more complex. The creativity of each suntriper has given birth to many original solutions.
The table below shows the variety of combinations selected by the participants in the different editions of the Sun Trip.

Position of solar panels
Bike Type at the front roofing at the back on trailer
2 wheel bike classic Bike + ++++
tandem +
cargo bike ++++ + + ++
recumbent bike ++++ ++
3 wheel bike trike ++++ +
tandem trike ++++

In the Sun Trip, the regulation allows a surface of solar panels of not more than 2, 5m ², for a maximum power of 450Wc (visible panels). The installation of such a panel surface is not simple and can also steer the choice of the type of bike: tandem, cargo bike, reclining bike, recumbent tricycle (trike), or encourage to add a trailer. The constraints encountered sometimes require the designer to install a lower surface of panels, at the expense of the vehicle’s autonomy.

On the reclining/seated tandem of Raf van Hulle, the seating position at the front is sacrificed to accommodate a panel, supplemented by other panel on trailer (Sun Trip 2013, 2015, 2018). This front layout is found on cargo bikes, except for the cargo bike experienced in 2013 by Lionel Candille with roofing panels. In 2018, Éric Morel had a sign attached to the back of his cargo bike.

On recumbent bikes and trikes, the panels are frequently installed in “roofing” and are sometimes supplemented by a trailer panel.

On conventional bikes, the panels are very frequently installed on a trailer.

One exception, Daniel Jenni installed his “roofing” Panel on a classic bike for the Sun Trip 2018.

Solar bikes made in Africa!

Spotted on Twitter: Since 2014, a company (NGO?) is developing light autonomous electric vehicles for Africa. It has deployed electric bikes and scooters, 3-and 4-wheeled vehicles, and charging stations, under leasing, rental, Pay as you go conditions.
His efforts are now focused on the development of environmentally friendly and affordable solar powered vehicles for isolated rural areas outside of the electricity grid in Africa.

The site: https://www.solar-e-cycles.com/

Crossing Kazakhstan on a sailing bike!

Yes, I concede, this article did not quite fit on this blog, it does not talk about solar bike. But as soon as I saw it on twitter, I did not resist the desire to relay this adventure that values another form of ecomobility, the sailing bike! Crossing Kazakhstan to Kyrgyzstan with the steppe ship @asiatrek, great!
And then the sun plays a role in the formation of the winds, right?

For more information, a very complete video:

Meeting with suntripers on the Lac du Bourget shores

This end of the day of June 15, some suntripers were already settling when we arrived at the campsite. The following suntripers arrived one after the other. This gave us all the time to greet those we knew, to meet others, to discover the design of different vehicles.